This augmentation project will enrich the parent project data funded by DFID-ESRC by adding measures of public expenditure and conducting a follow-up survey of schools, school management committees, and a sub set of students and parents from the parent project. The parent project has already made significant contribution to Nepali school education by developing and testing a set of tools to gather information about schools performance and student educational outcomes. Analysis of these data revealed strong associations between student learning and accountability measures such as parents knowledge, engagement, and empowerment. However, because of the ongoing transition in Nepals governance structure from a centralized to a local governance system, including in the education sector, it was not feasible to collect information about public expenditure and service delivery during the parent project. The lack of these important accountability measures has limited our findings. Additionally, since the parent project was completed, COVID-19 related school closures have dramatically changed the learning environment for schools, school management committees, parents, and students. This change has been disruptive, negatively affecting some schools and students more than others. To enhance our social accountability measures and inform our understanding of how COVID-19 intersects with social accountability and student learning we propose the following four aims: Aim One. Conduct a public expenditure tracking and service delivery survey and in-depth interview with representatives of local government bodies to add expenditure data to our measures of social accountability. Aim Two. Conduct follow-up phone surveys with students, parents, school principals, and School Management Committees/School Boards (SMC/SB) that participated in the parent study to understand how school disruptions have affected them, and how disruptions have impacted student learning. Aim Three. Collect School Education Examination (SEE) scores from Bharatpur Metropolitan City (BMC). This national exam taken at the end of grade 10 will be administered to students in our sample in March 2021. Aim Four. Link the newly collected data with existing student, parent, and school-level data to estimate the effect of school disruptions and accountability during COVID-19 on student education outcomes. In particular, we will explore how dropout rates, attendance rates, and student achievement (SEE scores) have changed after COVID-19 compared to before the pandemic. We will consider factors like learning environment and support structures at home and school. We will also explore different school coping strategies and whether these strategies are correlated with accountability measures. We will investigate how school disruptions have a greater negative impact on some students more than others by conducting our analyses among sub-groups of students. For example, we will compare males and females, advantaged and disadvantaged ethnic groups, students with highly educated and less educated parents, students with and without parents who are international migrants, and students who performed well in earlier assessments compared to those who did not perform well. This study will generate important scientific resources including: (1) measures of public expenditure tracking in a low-income context; (2) follow up measures of accountability from schools, school management committees, parents and students; and (3) scientific advancement in our understanding of the relationship between accountability and students achievement during COVID-19. We will make these findings widely available to scientists and policy makers through local dissemination workshops to share findings of the study, making the data publicly available through ICPSR and the UK Data Service, and through presentations at national and international conferences and publications in scientific articles and policy br